The Cosmology seminars are weekly seminars dedicated to Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. Please write to the contact below to join the mailing list to be updated on upcoming seminars.

We have both remote and on-site seminars going forward.

**Time:** Wednesdays 14:15-15:15 Helsinki time, unless otherwise noted.

**Remote:** Zoom invitations will be sent out on the Cosmology seminars mailing list.

**On-site: **Physicum A315 (will be streamed in Zoom)

**Format:** 45′ + 15′ for questions

**Contact:** Jaakko Annala

## Scheduled Seminars

### Autumn Term 2024

**18.9.2024 Timo Kärkkäinen (NICPB, Tallin), (Onsite)**

Title: Neutrino phenomenology from uncertainty principle?

Abstract: Generalized uncertainty principles are effective changes to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle that emerge in several quantum gravity models. We study the consequences of two classes of these modifications on neutrino phenomenology: oscillation probabilities, coherence lengths and nonstandard neutrino interactions. We find the constraints imposed by oscillation experiments and in particular the IceCube neutrino observatory to be as strict as the current bounds.**25.9.2024 – no seminar.****2.10.2024 Enrico Sessolo (Warsaw, Inst. Nucl. Studies), (Onsite)**

Title: Indications for particle physics from asymptotic safety

Abstract: I will discuss some of the phenomenological aspects of embedding the Standard Model and/or BSM models in the framework of trans-Planckian asymptotic safety. In this setting, the presence of an interactive UV fixed point in the renormalization group flow of the gauge and Yukawa couplings imposes a set of boundary conditions at the Planck scale. The ensuing fixed-point analysis leads to specific predictions for the IR phenomenology and it can lead to the dynamical generation of arbitrarily small quantities, for example the Yukawa coupling of (Dirac) neutrinos. I will show that a small Dirac mass for the neutrinos may appear more naturally in the gauged B-L model compared to the Standard Model, when we factor in first-principle calculations of the UV completion based on quantum gravity. In a B-L scenario embedded in asymptotic safety potential model discrimination may emerge from non-traditional signatures, in particular the detection of gravitational waves from first-order phase transitions.**9.10.2024 Ville Vaskonen (Padua U. and NICPB, Tallinn), (Onsite)**

Title: Consistency of the JWST black hole observations with PTA gravitational wave measurements

Abstract: Inspiralling SMBH binaries constitute a natural astrophysical explanation of the gravitational wave (GW) background discovered in pulsar timing array (PTA) data. In this seminar, I present a fast semianalytical computation of the expected GW background from SMBHs that allows for systematical studies of the effects of binary environments and eccentricities on the total GW background. I will discuss the fit of the SMBH model to the PTA data that shows evidence of environmental effects or binary eccentricities and identify signatures that can be used to distinguish between these effects and to confirm whether the signal comes from SMBH binaries. Finally, I will discuss how the PTA observations can be linked to the JWST observations of dual AGNs and little red dots and how these observations point towards strong environmental effects due to which the final-parsec problem is avoided.**16.10.2024 Bastián Reinoso (Helsinki U.), (Onsite)**

Title: TBA

Abstract: TBA**23.10.2024 – free****30.10.2024 Gianluca Calcagni (Madrid, Inst. Estructura Materia), (Onsite)**

Title: Imminent test of quantum gravity with gravitational waves

Abstract: We present a model of the early Universe stemming directly from a UV-complete, nonlocal, unified theory of quantum gravity and matter. The problems of the hot big bang are solved by virtue of the Weyl invariance enjoyed by the theory without the need to invoke inflation. Primordial tensor and scalar spectra are naturally generated by, respectively, quantum and thermal fluctuations. Relying on very few assumptions, the theory predicts a blue-tilted tensor spectrum feeding a primordial stochastic background observable by DECIGO, as well as a lower bound for the tensor-to-scalar ratio detectable by BICEP Array by 2027. Based on arXiv:2206.07066, 2206.06384.**6.11.2024 Philippa Cole (Sussex U.), (Onsite)**

Title: TBA

Abstract: TBA**13.11.2024 Henri Inchauspé (U. Heidelberg), (Onsite)**

Title: TBA

Abstract: TBA**20.11.2024 Seshadri Nadathur (Portsmouth U., ICG), (Onsite)**

Title: TBA

Abstract: TBA**27.11.2024 Swagat S. Mishra (U. Nottingham), (Remote)**

Title: TBA

Abstract: TBA**4.12.2024 – free****11.12.2024 – free****18.12.2024 – free**

### Spring Term 2024

**12.6.2024 John T. Giblin (Kenyon Coll.) (Onsite)**- Title: (P)reheating, Nonlinear Gravity and Primordial Black Holes
- Abstract: We have no direct evidence that general relativity is wrong; every precision test is a resounding confirmation of this elegant and powerful mathematical model. At the same time, we are just starting to learn how general relativity—beyond perturbation theory—requires us to revisit assumptions in cosmological contexts. In this talk, I will describe recent progress we have made in simulating different models of preheating using full numerical relativity. I will talk about how nonlinear gravity helps to resolve the breakdown of linearized gravity and comment on the possibilities of black holes form preheating. I will also discuss progress toward understanding primordial black hole formation in the presence of cosmic fluctuations.
**5.6.2024 Alina Mierna (Remote)**- Title: The Nature of Initial Conditions for the Cosmological Gravitational Wave Background
- Abstract: The recent detection of a stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) by the PTA collaboration opens an exciting era for the study of early universe cosmology. Given the better angular resolution of future GW detectors, anisotropies in the energy density of the SGWB are expected to be an effective tool to distinguish among various sources of GWs in the early universe. The non-thermal nature of the cosmological background of GWs makes it difficult to define the initial conditions for the overdensity of gravitons. Specifically, the adiabatic initial condition, which holds for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, is not guaranteed a priori for the primordial GWs. In this talk, I will present the result we obtained for the initial conditions of the CGWB generated by quantum fluctuations of the metric during inflation from the energy-momentum tensor. A direct consequence of our finding is that these initial conditions enhance the total CGWB angular power spectrum by an order of magnitude compared to the standard adiabatic case.
**22.5.2024 Simona Procacci (U. Geneva) (Onsite)**- Title: Refining the PT –> GWs pipeline
- Abstract: The possible contribution of a would-be EW first-order phase transition to the gravitational wave background in the LISA frequency range has raised significant interest in the cosmology community. With the goal of improving the accuracy of templates, we revisit the derivations of the gravitational wave spectrum to single out generic features from first-principles analytical derivations. In particular, we show how the velocity spectrum of growing bubbles is determined asymptotically by the analyticity properties of the single-bubble velocity profiles. The superposition of self-similar radial profiles yields a statistically homogeneous and isotropic velocity field, and therefore no gravitational waves. We comment on how this differs from results obtained in the literature. For the sound-wave regime, the choice of initial conditions is examined with respect to causality. The gravitational wave spectrum is finally derived for an expanding universe. This influences the spectral amplitude and shape, along with their dependency on the duration of the sourcing process.
**17.5.2024 Frank Jia Qu (Cambridge U.) (Onsite) (NOTE: Friday at 12:15)**- Title: Do we understand structure growth? A CMB lensing perspective
- Abstract: The cosmic microwave background serves as a unique backlight for illuminating the growth of structures in our universe. By measuring arc-minute deflections experienced by CMB photons, we can map matter distributions to high redshifts. This lensing signal not only offers a clean window for constraining fundamental physics, such as the sum of neutrino masses, but also facilitates powerful consistency tests of the standard cosmology model through comparisons with the predicted growth of large-scale structure. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the recent and forthcoming advances in this rapidly advancing field. In particular, I will highlight the recent CMB lensing results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). I will also show ongoing measurements with ACT and the opportunities that the soon-to-be-operational Simons Observatory (SO) will enable. New cross-correlations of CMB lensing with galaxy surveys also allow us to probe the amplitude of density fluctuations tomographically. I will discuss the implications of these lensing measurements in the context of cosmic structure growth and the S_8 tension (a previously reported discrepancy between CMB and low-z measurements).
**15.5.2024 Teerthal Patel (Arizona State U.)****(Postponed)****8.5.2024 Jun’ya Kume (Padua U.) (Onsite)**

Title: How are local cosmic strings constrained by Pulsar Timing Arrays?

Abstract: Since its first exciting report of a common stochastic process in 2020, Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) continue attracting our attention with the increasing significance of the gravitational wave background (GWB) signature. While GWB from cosmic strings has been actively investigated as a possible explanation for the observed signature, most studies do not accommodate results from cosmic string simulations in an underlying field theory. Therefore, we revisit the Bayesian inference analyses with the NANOGrav 15yrs data taking into account the indication that not all the loops emit GWs. Based on the result of our analyses, I will discuss how cosmic strings can really be constrained by PTAs.**24.4.2024 Simon Cléry (IJCLab, Orsay)****(Remote)**

Title: Gravitational production of matter and radiation during reheating

Abstract: I present new results on particle production during the reheating after inflation. We focus on the late-time evolution of the scalar inflationary field, during its coherent oscillation regime. We specifically consider the production of dark matter and radiation, restricting our attention to gravitational interactions, including minimal and non-minimal coupling to gravity. We also consider leptogenesis through the gravitational production of heavy right-handed neutrinos during reheating.

**17.4.2024 Andreas Ringwald (Desy) (Onsite)**

Title: Prospects to scrutinise or smash SM*A*S*H [Slides]

Abstract: SM*A*S*H is an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics which has just the minimal number of fields in order to solve six puzzles of particle physics and cosmology in one smash: vacuum stability, inflation, baryon asymmetry, neutrino masses, strong CP, and dark matter. The parameters of SM*A*S*H are constrained by symmetries and requirements to solve these puzzles. This provides various firm predictions for observables which can be confronted with experiments. We discuss the prospects and timeline to scrutinise or smash SM*A*S*H by cosmic microwave background polarisation experiments, axion haloscopes, and future space-borne gravitational wave detectors.

**3.4.2024 Emilie Despontin (Brussels U.) (Onsite)**

Title: Baryogenesis from aborted primordial black holes

Abstract: In this talk, I will introduce a novel mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis based only on Standard Model physics plus gravity. In our scenario, large curvature fluctuations slightly below the threshold for Primordial Black Hole (PBH) formation locally reheat the plasma above the sphaleron barrier, occurring at Hubble re-entry during the Quantum Chromodynamics crossover, particularly at cosmic temperatures between 20 MeV and 50 MeV. We show that the baryon-to photon ratio is comparable to the relative abundance of PBHs formed at the time, and its averaged value consistent with observations.

**27.3.2024 Subodh P. Patil (Leiden U.) (Onsite)**

Title: Primordial gravitational waves and N_{eff} bounds revisited [Slides]

Abstract: In this talk I will present on some recent and ongoing work that follows through on the renormalization process on cosmological backgrounds to completion. Doing so by adopting established techniques is clarifying to the point of novelty. Among the results we’ll arrive at include — Clarifying the roll played by the (UV and IR) scales corresponding to the beginning and end of inflation relative to the UV and IR scales corresponding to the unknown completion of the theory and its observables; Showing how certain IR divergences are an artifact of assuming a past infinite de Sitter phase as opposed to finite duration inflation; Finally, deriving a stress tensor for gravitational wave that does not presume a prior scale separation (as with the standard Isaacson form), and is therefore fit for the purposes of renormalization, highlighting how any attempts to extract N_{eff} bounds is inextricable from the process of renormalization.

**20.3.2024 Jérôme Martin (Paris, Inst. Astrophys.) (Onsite)**

Title: Can we show that the galaxies are of quantum-mechanical origin? [Slides]

Abstract: According to the theory of cosmic inflation, all the structures in our Universe (CMB anisotropies, clusters of galaxies etc …) are of quantum-mechanical origin. They are nothing but vacuum fluctuations, amplified by gravitational instability and stretched to cosmological distances by cosmic expansion. This scenario is well supported by the most recent astrophysical data. In this talk, I discuss whether we can go beyond and obtain a direct proof of the quantum-mechanical origin of primordial fluctuations.

**28.2.2024 Syksy Räsänen**

Title: Primordial black holes and stochastic inflation

Abstract: Primordial black holes are an interesting dark matter candidate. I discuss how to generate the required large density perturbations from inflation, why stochastic effects are important, and how to model them consistently. I also discuss new results on stochasticity in black hole collapse.

**21.2.2024 Giorgio Arcadi (Messina U.) (Remote)**

Title: Update on the 2HDM+a

Abstract: I will illustrate the outcome of some recent studies on the 2HDM+a model. I will show how this model can accommodate viable Dark Matter phenomenology as well as Gravitational Wave signals from First Order Phase Transitions in the Early Universe. Furthermore it can provide an interpretation of some recent experimental anomalies.

**7.2.2024 Mark Hindmarsh (On-site)**

Title: The AB transition in superfluid 3He and cosmological phase transitions

Abstract: First order phase transitions in the very early universe are a prediction of many extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics and could provide the departure from equilibrium needed for a dynamical explanation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. They could also produce gravitational waves of a frequency observable by future space-based detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). All calculations of the gravitational wave power spectrum rely on a relativistic version of the classical nucleation theory of Cahn-Hilliard and Langer, due to Coleman and Linde. The high purity and precise control of pressure and temperature achievable in the laboratory make the superfluid 3He AB transition ideal for testing the theory. Yet when the A phase of superfluid 3He is supercooled, the B phase appears far faster than classical nucleation theory would predict. If the appearance of B phase is due to a new rapid intrinsic mechanism, gravitational wave production could be rendered negligible. Here we discuss studies of the AB phase transition dynamics in 3He, both experimental and theoretical, and show how the computational technology for cosmological phase transition can be used to simulate the dynamics of the AB transition, and to support the experimental investigation of the AB transition.

**1.2.2024 Tomo Takahashi (Saga U.) (On-site) (NOTE: on Thursday at 11:15-12:15)**

Title: Quantum nature of primordial fluctuations and inflationary models

Abstract: Primordial fluctuations are considered to be generated quantum mechanically, and its verification of the quantum nature would be of great importance for a deeper understanding of the origin of structure of the Universe. Several quantum measures have been discussed to characterize the quantumness of primordial fluctuations, among which we focus on quantum discord in this talk. We investigate its inflationary model dependence and argue that such a detailed study may provide a further insight into the quantum nature of primordial fluctuations, and also a test of inflationary models from a new perspective.

**31.1.2024 Ingunn Kathrine Wehus (Oslo U. and Caltech) (Remote)**

Title: Cosmoglobe – mapping the sky from the Milky Way to the Big Bang

Abstract: The cosmic microwave background (CMB) gives us information about the earliest history of the Universe, close after the Big Bang. After half a century of more and more sensitive CMB observations, from ground, space and balloons, we now have dozens of valuable data sets available. Each of these has their own strengths and weaknesses, including sensitivity, resolution, frequency bands, sky fraction and systematics. Traditionally each experiment has been analyzed separately, which means that one is blind to the modes not observed by that particular instrument. When instead analyzing them jointly, they will break each other’s degeneracies. Another benefit of joint analysis is that more data allows you to model and constrain the CMB and the foreground emissions from our own galaxy at the same time, which is needed to separate the different components and get the best constraint for the cosmological parameters. This type of joint global analysis is what the Cosmoglobe effort is all about.

**24.1.2024 Giorgio Mentasti (Imperial Coll., London) (Remote)**

Title: Observing gravitational waves with solar system astrometry

Abstract: We propose a novel technique to probe the Pulsar Timing Array frequency band of the gravitational waves spectrum by cross-correlating the astrometric deflection of solar-system objects. We will explain how this technique is complementary to the Pulsar Timing Array, by showing its observational perspectives and limits. At the end of the talk, we will consider current and future electromagnetic surveys (such as LSST or GAIA) and we will show to what extent those missions can put constraints on the detectability of a stochastic gravitational wave background in that frequency range.**17.1.2024 Antonio Racioppi (NICPB, Tallinn) (On-site)**

Title: Slow-roll inflation in Palatini F(R) gravity (and beyond)

Abstract: We study single field slow-roll inflation embedded in Palatini F(R) gravity. In contrast to metric F(R), when rewritten in terms of an auxiliary field and moved to the Einstein frame, Palatini F(R) does not develop a new dynamical degree of freedom. However, it is not possible to analytically solve the constraint equation of the auxiliary field for a general F(R). We propose a method that allows us to circumvent this issue and compute the inflationary observables. Moreover, we prove that Palatini F(R)’s which, for infinite curvature, diverge faster than R^2, have a universal limit described by a Palatini quadratic gravity where the Einstein-Hilbert term has the wrong sign. Unfortunately, such configurations, even though a powerful tool in order to realize hilltop inflaton potentials, imply higher-order inflaton kinetic terms in the Einstein frame that might jeopardize the evolution of the system out of the slow-roll regime. We prove that a F(R+X) gravity, where X is the inflaton kinetic term, solves the issue, leaving the inflationary predictions unaffected.